When the West/ern Meets the South/ern (conference CFP)


Lieu / location: Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines,
Laboratoire Suds d’Amériques, Espaces Atlantiques (SUDS :

Dates: les 19 et 20 avril, 2013.

Langues / languages: français & anglais / French & English

Please send a 250-word
proposal to Claire Dutriaux, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre / Université
Paris IV-Sorbonne claire_dutriaux@yahoo.fr et à Taïna Tuhkunen, Université
de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines taina.tuhkunen@uvsq.fr avant le 31
décembre, 2012 / by December 31st, 2012.

Edwin S. Porter’s The Great Train Robbery is often presented as the
very first western in cinema history due to the way it sets up many of the
western types and motifs found in later movies on the American West.
Bearing in mind the interest raised by The Great Train Robbery, one might
wonder why another film, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, also made in 1903, which
introduces the spectator to an ostensibly Southern atmosphere has drawn far
less attention – to the point of being easily “forgotten” from Porter’s
filmography. However, this first film adaptation based on Harriet Beecher
Stowe’s famous novel (1852) already presents us with a number of
fundamental motifs, tropes and narrative schemes highlighted by the
“southern” genre, term proposed by Larry Langman and David Ebner in
Hollywood’s Images of the South: A Century of Southern Films (2001).
Are the reasons for this lack of recognition to be sought among the
difficulties of the American South, marked by its “peculiar institutions”,
of providing illustrious enough material for fiction (illustrious in the
etymological sense of the word – illustris : “lighted, bright, brilliant” ;
figuratively “distinguished, famous”)? Perhaps, but there seem to be plenty
of other reasons for the preeminence of the westerns which tend to resonate
with the rhetorics of discovery and conquest, as well as with the taming of
various “wildernesses”, while the southern, a “bad genre”, more often
focalizes on the lost and the obscure and browses through some of the most
somber pages of American History.
While it would be difficult to evoke the westerns and the southerns
without exposing the question of their historical rootings and generic
perimeters, one cannot overlook the way these film genres interact with
American icons and master narratives. Similarly to the American West, the
referential space named “South” has been recreated multiple times on screen
with its symptomatic aesthetics and typologies. In 1915, with the
technically and aesthetically dazzling, yet ideologically intolerable The
Birth of a Nation by D. W. Griffith, the Southern film proved its potential
as an “action movie” which was definitely on a par with westerns. A quarter
of a century later, Gone with the Wind (1939), another crucial movie driven
by its own glorifications and historical and cultural obliterations,
confirmed the power of melodrama over Southern films during the
reconstructions of a world “gone with the wind”, yet oddly enough still (as
the French
put it, “in the wind”) trendy.
At the outset, the differences between the filmic West and the
cinematographic South, two equally real and fantastic spaces, seem
unquestionable. “Action films” on the one hand, embodied by masculine
heroes, “scenarios of stagnation” on the other, centered upon plantations
with their Southern Beaux and Belles ; vast plains to be conquered and
populated in the West incompatible with the cotton fields, deleterious
swamplands and the confined or ruined mansions in the South. Without
disregarding, of course, the postures of the white pioneer seen in the
midst of a panoramic landscape, defending his family against the
“red-skins”, whereas another white man is ruling his white house as the
unconditional master of black slaves.
Beyond these clichéd images which instantly summon up a series of
typical scenes, it is, however, possible to perceive signs of mingling
concerning pre-established schemes.
Luckily for the contemporary spectator, westerns and southerns tend to
escape less and less frequently the hybridization and “bastardization” of
genres by inviting us to reconsider the North-American West and South
without systematically relying on neither geographical nor cultural
polarities, multiplied and propagated, as we know, by popular culture and
mainly by the cinema.
The Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines conference will provide an
opportunity to examine the various dynamics, often less recent than one
might think, between the Far West and the (Deep/) South, projected for more
than a century on the big screen. Whichever the chosen approach or
viewpoint, every speaker will deal with the two topoi in question. For
although a number of studies already exist on the North-South as well as on
the East-West, there is still a lot to explore within the West-South (or,
if one prefers, South-West) relations in the cinema. – The thus framed
cross-over approach of our conference whose title highlights the word
“encounter” (“meets”) will allow, we hope, an improved understanding of the
stakes involved in southern movies, while shedding light on the western
genre, a field so thoroughly researched that one might be inclined to argue
that everything has already been said and written on the subject. The
cinematographic South which has never shared with the West a line of
demarcation similar to the Mason-Dixon Line, may greatly benefit from this
momentary distance or detachment from the Yankees. As for the westerns, the
deliberately oblique or off-centered approach may, we believe, enhance
reflections on some of its own “legitimacies” and “counter-legitimacies”
within the westerns’ cinematographic constructions of America.

Here are a few tracks, among many others, one might wish to consider –
from the West to the South, or vice versa (the route chosen by Captain
America in Easy Rider) – in order to examine the numerous kinds of
interaction, overlapping and porosity that seem to take form between the
two genres:
• The genre indicators in the westerns & the southerns ;
Thematic constants, typologies, recurrent spaces and character traits,
narrative schemes and strategies, aesthetic codes ; Is the “southern” an
autonomous genre or a mere “sub-genre”, is it “illegitimate” compared to
the western? The southern as the “reverse side” or the “flip” / “flop side”
of the western?
• (Founding and regenerating) myths and legends in westerns & southerns :
polarities or crossings ? The pastoral myth ; the myth of the lost paradise
; the de/composition of the agrarian myth (Thomas Jefferson) ; Eldorado &
Dixieland ; Typically American values (democracy, freedom of opinion,
liberty to undertake, individualism, etc.) revisited through these two
• Genealogy and evolution of the two genres, also through the interaction
with other art forms and medias (dime novels, plantation novels, minstrel
shows, Tom shows, etc.) ; The role of subtexts / intertexts (ex. The
Bible); filmic
intertextuality and transtextuality.
• Westerns and southerns as cultural mirrors intimately associated with the
imaginary and History of the American nation. Connections between History
and memory? For what kind of representations of the “New World”? Is the
shadow of the “peculiar institution” restricted to the (official) slave
society? The representation of other institutions (family, school, church,
etc.); Links with the law and the outlaws ; the judicial system ; law
establishment/-ing (enforced by the West / the North).
• Violence and trauma in the westerns & in the southerns : origins,
manifestations and scope ? The violence of the “savage West” and the
“civilized South” ; primitive violence and the struggle for survival ;
violence as recreation in the West vs. disturbing, distressing violence in
the South?
• The creation of westerns & southern spaces; permeability of frontiers and
borders; the wilderness
: a benign or a malignant, revengeful nature ? The relationships with the
land and the concept of territorial integrity; the notion of the “frontier”
and of liminal territories that invite us to reconsider West/South
relations (such as Texas in Giant or Lone Star).
• Heroes and heroines (frontiersmen, conquerors, cowboys, ranchers,
sheriffs, lawmen, bounty hunters, saloon girls, school marms, etc. ;
planters, Belles, rednecks, hillbillies, poor white trash, etc.). Crossings
between characters from both ends of the western/southern spectrum; the
specific case of the former Confederate turned outlaw, sometimes lost in a
western universe (The Searchers, Shane, The Outlaw Josey Wales, Dances with
• Relation to time ; retrospective vs. prospective approaches (is the
immune to the nostalgia of “grand old times”?) ; Existence, in the
symbolic system of the westerns, of similar splits as those of “the Old
South” and “the New South” / ante- and postbellum Souths? Presence of these
time-related questions in the narrative strategies of films?
• The question of gender; Dixie chicks & frontier girls ; Calamity Jane &
Scarlett O’Hara : convergences or distinct forms / types of femininity ? ;
Reinvestments and transvestism; Female freaks in the West & in the South:
the old ancestral fear or new territorial variations ? Southern women in
western settings (ex. Belle Starr, True Women, Thelma & Louise).
• Ethnic alterity and racial questions ; representation of ethnic
minorities (ex. characters of color in westerns ; Native Americans in
southerns ?) ; men and women from abroad (Europe, Asia, South America) ;
Mixed couples, miscegenation, etc.
• Problems of class in the westerns, less
visible than in the southerns? ; Social hierarchies in the era of American
classics and today?
• Parodies and pastiches of classic westerns & southerns in the service of
the renewal of the western & southern genres (spaghetti westerns, western
comics ; Hillbilly movies, multi-character movies, etc.)
• Music of the West & the South in the cinema ; Do westerns & southerns
have a musical identity of their own ? (ex. “Yankee Doodle” vs. “I Wish I
Was In Dixie”).
• Film directors who have used both genres (ex. John Ford, John Huston, Don
Siegel, Joel and Ethan Coen, King Vidor) : intersections between the West &
the South or cinematographic territories and experiences not to be mixed up
• Commercial exploitation of the West & the South in the cinema ? Phases
and periods ; in/compatibilities concerning the successes of western &
southern movies in the box-office? Turning points, successes and flops in
the evolution of the two genres.
• Postmodernist blendings ; renewals of archetypes ; recirculation of
western & southern effects (ex. next film by Tarantino, Django Unchained,
expected release in 2013) ; What does cinema gain with these inter-spatial
and interfilmic games between the West & the South, by frustrating and
playing with the spectators’ expectations, and by weaving links between the
“lost” and other, more “illustrious causes”?

Looking forward to your proposals.
Best regards,
Claire Dutriaux et Taïna Tuhkunen

N.B. The April 2013 conference will be preceded by a preparatory workshop
which will take place at Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University on
Friday, October 12, 2012 from 9.30 to 12.30 at the Laboratoire Suds
d’Amériques. The workshop participants will discuss the main themes of the
conference (as indicated above). Further
information concerning the workshop and the conference (as well as the
suggested bibliography) will be posted on the laboratoire SUDS website in
September : http://sudam.uvsq.fr


Undead in the West

From: Cynthia J. Miller:

I am also very pleased to announce the publication of  Undead in the West:
Vampires, Zombies, Mummies, and Ghosts on the Cinematic Frontier,
co-edited with Bow Van Riper (Scarecrow Press).

The volume’s seventeen chapters, contributed by an array of scholars from
Europe, Latin America, Canada, and the U.S., look at the history,
complexities, and implications of incursions of the Undead into the West in
films such as BILLY THE KID VS. DRACULA, John Carpenter’s VAMPIRES, PLANET
WALKING DEAD and the CW’s series, SUPERNATURAL.  Issues of restorative
justice, empowerment, liminality, racism, exploitation, and the
construction of masculinity are among the topics discussed in depth in the
volume’s essays

The volume is available on Amazon, as well as through it’s webpage:

Breaking Bad-“Say My Name”

In the first season of Breaking Bad, Jesse and Walt met Tuco in the junkyard and they had no power in that negotiation. They were meth up-starts seeking a share of the business. Now Walt emerges victorious from any negotiation. When the Phoenix meth crew initially refuses Walt’s offer for a share of the business, Walt tells them to “Say my name.” Heisenberg. Walt obtains the recognition he so desires.

Todd emerges as Jesse’s replacement in this episode. He’s a young, eager student ready to take notes and learn. He even refuses an offer of money until he’s truly learned the business.

The most memorable scene in this episode was the last image of the beautiful river, a great outdoor western scene for Mike’s death. “Just shut up and let me die in peace,” he tells Walt who is still talking about how it didn’t have to be that way, although we know it did. Mike’s death represents the loss of the main person who would challenge Walt. Mike stood for how crime was done in the past, with a sense of what was right even in the midst of doing everything wrong.

ASLE 2013 (Conference Call For Papers)

Conference Description

The Association for the Study of Literature and Environment (ASLE) invites proposals for its Tenth Biennial Conference, to be held May 28th through June 1st, 2013, at the University of Kansas in Lawrence. The decennial conference theme is intended to reflect some of the most engaging current conversations within the environmental humanities and across disciplines, and to link those discussions to the transnational nexus of energy, labor, borders, and human and nonhuman environments that are so fundamentally “changing nature,” and with it the widely varied kinds of environmental critique we practice, art we make, and politics we advocate. Migrations–of humans, of non-human creatures, of “invasive species,” of industrial toxins across aquifers and cellular membranes, of disease across species and nations, of transgenic pollen and GM fish-have changed the meanings of place, bodies, nations, and have lent new urgency to the old adage that “everything is connected to everything.” Energies–fossil, renewable, human, spiritual, aesthetic, organic-radically empower our species for good and for ill, and make our individual and collective choices into the Anthropocene. And those choices are profoundly about Limits on resources, climate, soil, and water; about voluntary and involuntary curbs on individual and collective consumption and waste; about the often porous and often violently marked borders of empire, class, race, and gender.
We seek proposals for papers, panels, roundtables, workshops, and other public presentations that address the intersections between representation, nature, and culture, and that are connected to the conference’s deliberately broad and, we hope, provocative theme. As always, we emphatically welcome interdisciplinary approaches; readings of environmentally inflected fiction, poetry, creative nonfiction, and film; and proposals from outside the academic humanities, including submissions from artists, writers, practitioners, activists, and colleagues in the social and natural sciences. An incomplete list of possible topics might include, combine, and are certainly not limited to:
  • Petro-­culture and the Energies of Modernity: the Keystone pipeline, hydrofracking, tar sands, global capital and resource wars, the possibility of change
  • Aesthetics and the Futures of Environmental Representation
  • Climate Change: mitigation, adaptation, costs, and the concept of place
  • Empire, Race and Environment: postcolonial ecocriticism
  • The Futures of Ecofeminism
  • Indigenous Environmentalisms
  • “Natural” Histories of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, Class, Sexualities…
  • Ecocomposition, environmentalism and rhetoric, sustainable pedagogies/the pedagogies of sustainability
  • Environmental Justice: toxins, food, climate, sovereignty
  • Postnatural Nature, Posthuman Humanism
  • Digital Representation and Natural Experience
  • Biotechnology: prostheses, genetic modification, synthetic life
  • Waste: from adopt-a-highway to the pacific garbage patch
  • Animals, Animality: us and us
  • Evolution, Epigenetic Change, Politics
  • Affect and Environmentalism: love, despair, postdespair
Plenary Speakers
(More speakers TBA) 
Stacy Alaimo, Distinguished Teaching Professor in English, University of Texas at Arlington. Author of Undomesticated Ground: Recasting Nature as Feminist Space and Bodily Natures: Science, Environment, and the Material Self.
Juan Carlos Galeano, Spanish Poetry and Amazonian Studies, Florida State University. Author of Amazonia and Folktales of the Amazon.
Wes Jackson, resident of the Land Institute. Author of
Nature as Measure (2011) and Consulting the Genius of the Place (2010).
Rob Nixon,
Rachel Carson Professor of English, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Author of Slow Violence and the Environmentalism of the Poor and Dreambirds: The Natural History of a Fantasy.
Jeffrey Thomson, Poetry and Nonfiction, University of Maine Farmington. Author of Birdwatching in Wartime and Renovation.
Daniel Wildcat, American Indian Studies, Haskell Indian Nations University. Co-director of the Haskell Environmental Research Studies Center and author of Red Alert! Saving the Planet with Indigenous Knowledge and (with Vine Deloria, Jr.) Power and Place: Indian Education in America.
Cary Wolfe,
Bruce and Elizabeth Dunlevie Professor of English, Rice University. Author of Animal Rites: American Culture, The Discourse of Species, and Posthumanist Theory and What Is Posthumanism?
Donald Worster, Joyce and Elizabeth Hall Professor of U.S. History, University of Kansas. Author of Nature’s Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas, Dust Bowl: the Southern Plains in the 1930s, and A Passion for Nature: The Life of John Muir.
Submission Guidelines
For additional information and to submit a proposal for a pre-formed panel or individual paper, please visit the conference website: asle.ku.edu.
  • One proposal submission allowed per person.
  • Participants can present on only one panel/paper jam/or roundtable (though serving as a chair on a panel, in addition to presenting, is permitted.)
  • Pre-formed panels are highly encouraged. To encourage institutional diversity and connection, all pre-formed panels must include participants from more than one institution and from more than one academic level.
  • Proposals must be submitted online (though if this poses a significant difficulty for an individual member, please email Paul Outka to work out an accommodation.)
All proposals must be submitted by November 15, 2012. We will evaluate your proposal carefully, and notify you of its final status by January 31, 2013.
For questions about the program, please contact 2013 ASLE President Paul Outka, at paul.outka@ku.edu. For questions about the conference site and field sessions, please contact the Conference Site Host, Byron Caminero-­Santangelo, at bsantang@ku.edu.
Pre-conference Workshops
As we have in the past, we will hold a number of pre-conference workshops on Tuesday, May 28, 2013, on central and emerging topics that reflect the diversity of our approaches and our membership. Rather than choose conference leaders in advance, however, we are calling for proposals for workshops and will post what seem the most compelling set of panels before the conference registration opens. Preconference workshop leaders will receive free registration for the 2013 conference and a complementary year’s membership in ASLE. For more information or to submit a proposal to lead a preconference workshop, please email Greta Gaard, ASLE’s 2013 Preconference Workshop Coordinator (greta.gaard@uwrf.edu). Proposals should include (a) a 500 word (max) proposal outlining the proposed workshop theme, structure, and your particular qualifications and (b) your vita. Pre-­conference workshop proposals must be sent by October 30, 2012.
We will also be offering half-day field excursions one afternoon that will allow attendees to experience some of the extraordinary natural beauty and fascinating history of the area, including a visit to the Konza Prairie Biological Station; a tour of the Wakarusa Wetlands, Haskell Indian Nations University Campus and Medicine Wheel; a trip to the KU Environmental Studies Field Station and Native Medicinal Plant Research Garden; mountain biking along the Kansas River; and an organic farm tour. For more information, please contact the conference site host, Byron Caminero-Santangelo (bsantang@ku.edu).
Finally, as announced on the diversity caucus blog and in the newsletter, the conference will make a block of time and a number of rooms available during the conference to facilitate the formation of interest group caucuses within ASLE, based around critical perspective, identity, language, region, nation, or whatever other organizing principle the group chooses. The only requirement for these groups is that they are open to all members; our hope is that the caucuses will encourage richer conversation within ASLE and will facilitate better communication between the membership and the leadership about how ASLE might strengthen its longstanding commitments to diversity. For more information on the caucuses and to request meeting space in advance, please contact ASLE diversity coordinator Salma Monani at smonani@gettysburg.edu.
Lawrence and the University of Kansas

Stretching out on its own unbounded scale, unconfined… Combining the real and the ideal, and beautiful as dreams.”

–Walt Whitman on the view from the campus of The University of Kansas

Located in the forested hills surrounding the Kansas River, Lawrence offers the charms of a small city on the edge of the prairie with the resources of Kansas City (and its major airport) a short drive to the east. As home to both the University of Kansas and Haskell Indian Nations University, Lawrence is frequently cited as one of the United States’ best college towns, and was recently ranked by the National Trust for Historic Preservation as one of its “Dozen Most Distinctive Destinations.” The lovely KU campus sits atop Mount Oread and is a short walk, bike, or bus ride from Lawrence’s vibrant downtown, as well as the river and a number of area parks. At the center of downtown is very pedestrian-friendly Massachusetts Street, offering two miles of local shops, galleries, independent bookstores, coffeehouses, bars and live music venues, as well as a burgeoning foodie and locavore culture spearheaded by a range of downtown restaurants. For those seeking outdoor activities, the town offers extensive cycling and walking trails through town and along the Kansas River; hiking, camping, and boating at Clinton Lake and Perry Lake (each about a fifteen-minute drive from campus); and walking trails through the Wakarusa wetlands.

Conference housing will be provided in the university’s dormitories and in three local hotels. Dormitory housing, all conference events, and one hotel are all within a five minute walk of each other through campus. Two Conference hotels are in the center of downtown, about ten blocks from campus; regular shuttle service will be provided for those who would prefer that option. Wireless Service will be available for all conference registrants, and all rooms for concurrent sessions will be equipped with projectors and Internet access. In addition, to reduce our resource use, we will make all conference materials, including maps and the program, available online and through a smartphone app; paper materials will also be readily available at registration upon request.

Hell on Wheels: Durant, Nebraska

If the first couple of episodes are any indication, season two of Hell on Wheels is going to have a lot going for it. These were two of the best episodes of the series, thus far, well-paced, with plenty of action, and a lot of character interaction that builds on what we know previously about a variety of characters. Mr. Durant finds himself in dire straits; the Nebraska town he established (and modestly named after himself) is attacked by a Sioux war party and burned to the ground. The Sioux, it seems, may give him more trouble in season two than the Cheyenne did in season one. At this point, the Sioux remain at a distance as a potentially dangerous threat. We know, at least, that they have a motive—Durant plans to ignore his previous engineer’s advice to avoid building the railway through Sioux sacred grounds. Hopefully, the series will develop individual Sioux characters as the season progresses.

Bohannon has been captured in the midst of a train robbery and taken to a federal prison, where he awaits execution.  Fortunately for him, the Sioux attack makes Durant realize that he really needs Bohannon back on his payroll. Neither man is particularly happy about that, but Durant arranges to get Bohannon released from prison. “Sometimes,” Durant tells him, “you have to make a bargain with the devil.” “Which one of us,” Bohannon comments, “is the devil in the bargain.” That seems like it might be a developing theme for this season. Which one, indeed, is the devil in the bargain? That’s a hard question to answer.

That also seems to play out in the relationship between Bohannon and Elam. The two characters certainly mirror one another in multiple ways, as suggested when they finally encounter one another again at the Hell on Wheels camp. They just stand and look at one another, their stances and responses doubling one another. Which one is the devil in that relationship? Certainly, Elam takes up the cause of justice in the camp, tracking down the man who killed a prostitute in the earlier episode, but his motives are hardly pure. He accepts cash from Lily to do so, but, more to the point, he only agrees to “punish” the man when Lily reveals that Eva is the one who directed her toward him. Yes, with Durant burned down, Eva is back in the Hell on Wheels camp. At the end of last season, Elam made his own bargain with the devil, choosing to take Durant’s job offer rather than marrying Eva and settling down. As he looks longingly at the now married Eva throughout the episode (and he kills for her, or, at her direction), maybe he’s wondering about whether or not he got the better end of the bargain after all. And with her respectable family life in an actual town now ended since the town is no longer there, perhaps Eva is having some doubts of her own.

Mr. Gundersen (no longer “The Swede,” really, as he is no longer the  much-feared overseer of the camp) is also a character who is developing in interesting ways. Driving around a wagon loaded with waste (and the stray dead body or two), if he is not someone who has made his own bargain with the devil, he certainly looks like the guy that can ferry you across the River Styx. A scene between Gundersen and Rev Cole, in which Gundersen stands in front of a roaring fire as the two talk enthusiastically about the end of the world, certainly suggests Gundersen’s affiliation with hell. His costuming this season is fantastic. Wearing a coonskin cap and tattered black clothing, he looks like a combination of a Norwegian Davy Crockett and the world’s seediest undertaker.

Joseph Black Moon has perhaps made his own bargain with the devil, choosing his faith over his people, only to have his faith challenged by the man he placed it in—Rev. Cole, who continues to drink and drink and drink.

Lily Bell seems to have found her way into Durant’s bed, to which I can only say two things: Yuk! and Huh? I’m not quite sure how that happened, especially given her obvious disgust for him. I may have missed something at the end of the last season, but I didn’t see this development coming. The show continues to have trouble with developing female characters. Lily seems to do things because it’s convenient to the plot that she does so. I’m not sure where we’re heading here, but, of all the various bargains with the various devils, Lily may have made the worst deal of all.

Breaking Bad-“Buyout”

Walt is in the meth business to build empires. He tells Jesse this when they are at his house, an invitation Jesse was surprised to receive. In the most deliciously awkward part of the episode, Jesse attempts to make small contact with Skyler. He complements her food and then she states in an icy tone that it just came from the Albertson’s deli. She has just found out that Walt told Marie about her affair with Benecke. I believe this is only the second time in the series that Jesse and Skyler have been in the same scene together.

In the wake of the boy’s death, Jesse is distraught and angry. Todd has no regrets. He simply says, “Shit happens,” and comments on the smell of the chemicals they use to dissolve the boy’s body. The opening sequence shows them unearthing the boy’s dirt bike slowly from the back of the truck and then we saw his hand in a moment that is truly horrifying. Todd also kept the tarantula in the jar.

Walt also appears to have no regrets. He whistles in the meth tent after Jesse and him see a news story about the missing boy.

Walt may be low on regrets, because he will not let this fortune get away from him as he did Gray Matter, the company that is now worth billions of dollars. This information rewards viewers who remember the birthday party scene from early in the series when Walt goes to the house of his former partner. We still don’t know the full reason Walt sold his part of the company.

Ayn Rand and Rose Wilder Lane